Concourse also knows as the Grand Concourse was designed by Louis Aloys Risse, an Alsatian immigrant. Risse first conceived the road in 1890 as a way to connect Manhattan to the northern Bronx. It was finally open for traffic in 1909 at a final cost of $14 million, the equivalent of $340 million in 2008. In 1923, Yankee Stadium opened near the Concourse at 161st Street, down the hill from the Concourse Plaza Hotel. In 1934, almost 99% of residences had private bathrooms, and 95% had central heating. Novelist E.L. Doctorow featured the Grand Concourse in much of his writing.